ASTM B322 PDF
ASTM B – Designation: B – 99 (Reapproved ) Endorsed by American Electroplaters’ Socie. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM B at Engineering International Auto and Engineering Works (IAEW), a year-old company based in Mumbai, follows the (The American Society for Testing and Materials) ASTM.
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ASTM B rp A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or qstm.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the B32 of Defense. It is not meant to apply to every speci? The degree of cleanliness required for metals to be electroplated is greater than for most other?
Methods of removal of heat-treat or mill scale are not included in these methods, because they are covered in practices referring to speci? It should also be understood that while these procedures are broadly applicable, particular substrates may require certain speci? The choice of these procedures must be based on a knowledge of the metals to be cleaned and wstm the soils to be removed.
Because most experience and knowledge in cleaning have been obtained by suppliers of proprietary processes and formulations, these sources should be consulted before setting up a cleaning process.
This treatment activates the metal and is usually accomplished asrm acid baths which also serve to neutralize the residual alkaline? Alkaline chelated derusting and cleaning solutions, alone or with sodium cyanide, used as a soak or electrocleaner, are often preferred before electroplating on ferrous alloys.
These stages are discussed in three parts: Part I—Precleaning use of a solvent, emulsion, or alkaline spray to remove the bulk of the soil. Part II—Intermediate alkaline cleaning.
Part III—Final electrocleaning, to remove trace solids and especially adherent impurities. Often, depending largely on the amount and type of soil on the workpieces as received, one or more of these stages may be eliminated or modi? Usually, even with light soils, it is advisable to retain multistage cleaning, thereby increasing the life and efficiency of the cleaning solutions.
It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Various metals are electroplated for decorative or engineering? The common electroplates applied are usually copper, nickel, and chromium asm decorative and functional uses. Electroplated articles are used in many industries such as the marine, automotive, plumbing? Nature of the Soil 3.
ASTM B322 – 99(2014)
Current edition approved Oct. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as B — For example, efforts should be made to avoid overbuffing, leaving excessive compound on the work, or aging of the compound on the part before cleaning. Substitution of liquid for solid buffing compound, if work permits, often gives easier cleaning, if properly applied, but may require use of a different type of cleaner.
Drawing compounds with polymerizing oils or white lead pigment are to be avoided because of difficulty in cleaning. Additives for lubricating and sulfurized cutting oils are chosen for their ability to adhebe tenaciously and are difficult to remove.
Prolonged storage or drying of emulsion drawing compounds after metal working should be avoided so that slimy water-in-oil emulsions do not form. In-process cleaning or even a hot-water? Emulsion machining lubricants soluble oils should be used in place of sulfurized cutting oils if operations permit. Lowerviscosity machining and rust-preventive oils are more easily removed.
Stop-off materials, when used, should be applied carefully in order to avoid contaminating signi? The use of clean gloves should be mandatory after buffing or polishing to avoid? Airborne contaminants can be avoided by using covers over stored work. It is desirable to perform a cleaning operation as soon as possible after metal forming, polishing, or buffing to reduce the demands on subsequent cleaning operations, because many soils are more easily removed when fresh.
The softness and surface? The chemical activity of the metal is an important and determining factor in cleaner selection. Aluminum requires care to avoid overetching in alkaline cleaners; both aluminum and zinc are sensitive to pitting attack, zinc and brass to tarnishing.
Zinc die castings have surfaces that require special care because of sensitivity to attack by cleaning solutions. If possible, design of parts should avoid small indentations that tend to trap solid particles or buffing compositions. With die castings, care must be exercised to avoid cutting through the surface by excessive buffing.
Some surface defects may not show up until cleaning and electroplating cycles are completed. Attention should be given to proper 2 procurement since, even in the same category, not all cleaners are equally effective.
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A cleaner may be very effective for one group of soils, yet poor for other soils. This is true of electrocleaners as well as soak or spray cleaners. Soil, type of water, available time, rinsing facilities, type of metal, heating, and agitation available, facilities for disposal of cleaner, and type of personnel and equipment all in?
Obviously, economics must be considered but an initial or per pound cost must be balanced against other factors. The effective life of a cleaning bath must be estimated and baths discarded when exhausted. Bath life is in? The concentration of the cleaner should be controlled by analysis at regular intervals. Boiler condensate may also be used advantageously.
If the plant conditions water for acidity or alkalinity care must be taken to be sure the solids content is not too high Note 1. Impurities derived from processing cannot be ignored; that is, rinse waters must be changed frequently or over? NOTE 1—Boiler waters which contain cationic corrosion inhibitors may be quite detrimental to the plating process.
NOTE 2—Floating oil on water can cause poor adhesion. A discussion of equipment is beyond the scope of this practice 2, 3. Criteria of Cleanliness 8.
The atomizer test is the most sensitive one, but the water-break test is most commonly used. This involves visual observation after a?
A continuous sheet of water on the part usually indicates a clean surface. Certain precious-metal surfaces, such as gold, may exhibit water break, even though clean. Some experience is necessary to judge the appearance of a break in the? Other methods, including electroplating and testing of the electroplate, should be used occasionally to con? One procedure involves scrubbing with pumice and then comparing the surface produced by this method with that produced under production conditions.
It is also useful in reducing the viscosity of waxes and heavy oils, to enable later cleaning stages to be more effective, or to surround? Combining these with hand brushing is excellent but does not lend itself to production conditions. On the other hand, simple dipping in solvent is frequently ineffective. The chlorinated solvents are very effective for many soils, but not as effective in removing soap-based or other solvent-insoluble soils.
Before electroplating, cold cleaning with solvents must be followed by additional cleaning such as alkaline cleaning to remove slight oily residues. In vapor degreasing, the work is usually sprayed with clean solvent or given a thorough immersion in boiling or warm solvent for mechanical removal of tenacious soil or solids. This is followed by immersion in cold solvent to cool the parts.
Then follows exposure to condensation of hot, clean solvent vapors on the work. For removal of caked-on oils and compounds, a predip in cool solvent can be used to wet and loosen the soil before the degreasing operation. Because of the rapid penetrating action of the solvent and solvent vapor, this method is effective in cleaning parts containing recesses, blind holes, perforations, crevices, and welded seams.
Where the soils are present on surfaces that are not readily accessible, the process is sometimes supplemented by ultrasonic cleaning in the solvent rinse chamber.
Insoluble soils buffing grits, metal sstm and dust, etc. It is not effective on metallic salts, scale, carbon deposits, many inorganic soldering or welding? This process is frequently competitive in cost with wet 3 cleaning methods.
The addition of emulsi? Further, intimate contact of the metal surface with the aqueous phase permits removal of materials not soluble in the hydrocarbon phase. Additions of rust inhibitors or of alkali cleaners can be made to the water phase.
Since agitation is important to good cleaning, the power-spray cleaners? Astmm higher temperatures remove soils more quickly and effectively, but caution must be used with cleaners containing organics of low? Some cleaners containing chlorinated solvents are used above the? Living microbes break down organic compounds, such as oil and grease into carbon dioxide and water and the cleaners, if properly maintained, may run for years without changing the bath at all.
Typically, optimum pH range for these types of cleaning systems is 8. Too high a pH will result in lowering of the bacteria action, and zstm will be built-up. Too low a pH will render the bacteria too active resulting in consumption of the wetter and other organics necessary for proper cleaning.
Temperature also is a critical operating parameter. Without air asttm operation, anerobic bacteria are produced and the cleaner will take on a noticeable, unpleasant odor.
Air sparging also improves overall cleaning efficiency by promoting transfer of oil and grease particles from part surface into the cleaning solution.
In order for bioremediation to proceed, particles must be detached from the part surface. B — 99 Petroleum and aromatic solvents of low? Underwriters Laboratoriesapproved containers and adequate ventilation should be provided to avoid the accumulation of fumes in explosive concentrations.
Diluted emulsion cleaners usually have?